O cinema e suas crises | Nível básico
O cinema é uma arte muito jovem, e já passou por diversas crises. Mas continua aí, firme e forte (talvez um pouco menos forte em tempos de pandemia, mas continua batalhando e fazendo falta). Você sabe quais foram as principais crises desta indústria?
Este texto é de nível básico.
As palavras grifadas têm explicação ao final do texto.
Film and its crises
Film is a very young art. It's a little over one hundred years old. But it has gone through several identity crises, and remains alive, firm and strong.
Crisis 1: sound
Film was born silent, around 1895. The first films were black and white, without sound, and also very short.
But around 1923, sound recording technology arrived. The movies were now able to talk. Crisis, crisis, crisis. Filmmakers said this would destroy film performance and the actors' jobs.
But it didn't.
Crisis 2: the TV
In the 1950s, color films arrived. It wasn't that bad for the industry. People loved being able to see the colors of real life on the screen.
But at the same time, TV arrived. For good. Total crisis. Television comes with everything, and it reaches everyone. Everyone can have a TV at home. Nobody else will go to the movies. Film is doomed.
But it wasn't.
Crisis 3: video
The television used video (magnetic tapes) for recording. Cinema used film, made by a flexible and transparent base, covered by a thin layer of gelatin with silver crystals. These crystals react to light, forming the image.
The quality of the image captured on film was much higher than the quality of the image captured on video. But it was much more expensive to shoot on film than to record on video.
In the 1950s, video was still expensive as well. But by the 1970s, it became cheaper. That's when home video devices arrived on the market. Now people could watch - and own! - movies at home.
Filmmakers went crazy. "People won't go to the movies anymore. People will no longer want to spend money on film tickets, leave home, stand in line to see a movie. We're screwed. Film is dead."
But it still had an advantage: better image quality.
But hey, it's nice to have your favorite movies at home. Even if the quality is not the best.
Crisis 4: the DVD
Then, in 1997, the DVD came. Digital Video Disk.
"Oh no. Nobody else will go to the movies now. DVD quality is very good. TVs are also getting giant. Film is dead."
But it wasn't.
Crisis 5: full digitalization
In 2005 the North American market started to adopt digitalization for good. It was the end of the physical medium of film. The quality of the digital image was reaching that of film. The transition was inevitable. And many small producers, distributors and exhibitors had to close down. Movie theaters had to adapt. And invest a lot of money.
Crisis 6: VOD
With the popularization of the internet and smartphones, film had to face new crises: streaming platforms (VOD), piracy, YouTube ...
But no, film did not die. It always managed to adapt to the change of times and audience.
Film needs an audience. And the audience (still) loves to go to the movies (and miss it during quarantine!). This audience also watches films at home. And on the cell phone. And on the iPad. As long as there is a screen, people will still love watching a movie.
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For good (expression)
In a definite manner
As an expression: to be condemned, not have a future
To own (verb)
To have something that belongs to you
To be in a bad situation
To close down (phrasal verb)
To end all commercial activities
Movie theaters (noun)
The place where you go to watch a movie on the big screen