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A tradição do Fish and Chips | Nível avançado

A culinária inglesa não é das mais famosas, mas tem um ícone que todo mundo conhece: o famoso fish and chips.

Este texto é de nível avançado.

As palavras grifadas têm explicação ao final do texto.


A short history of Fish and Chips

Fish and chips is a hot dish made of fish fried in batter and served with chips. The dish originated in England, where these two components were introduced by separate immigrant cultures. Fish and chips is a common take-away food in the United Kingdom and many other countries, especially in English-speaking nations.

Fish and chips first appeared in the UK in the 1860s. By 1910, there were over 25,000 fish and chip shops across the UK. By the 1930s there were over 35,000 shops, but the trend reversed and by 2009 there were only approximately 10,000.

The tradition of fish battered and fried in oil may have come from Western Jewish immigrants from Holland. Deep-fried chips appeared in England in the same period: the Oxford English Dictionary says that the word "chips" was first used in Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities (1859): "husky chips of potato, fried with some reluctant drops of oil". The earliest known shops were opened in the 1860s. Fish and chips became a stock meal among the working classes in England with the development of trawl fishing in the North Sea, and of railways which connected the ports to major industrial cities during the second half of the 19th century. This way, fresh fish could be easily transported to more populated areas.

The dish is so important to the British nation that the government safeguarded the supply of fish and chips during the First World War and the Second World War: it was one of the few foods in the UK not subject to rationing during the wars.

Fish and chips is usually served in a paper wrapper (greaseproof paper), as a takeaway food. They were originally served in a wrapping of old newspapers, but this practice has now largely ceased, with plain paper, cardboard, or plastic being used instead.

The modern fish-and-chip shop is called "chippy" in modern British slang. They follow a very standard format, with the food served to queuing customers over a counter in front of the fryers.

As a boy, famous director Alfred Hitchcock lived above a fish and chip shop in London, which was the family business.


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Batter (noun)

A liquid mixture of flour, egg, and milk or water used in cooking, especially for making cakes or for coating food before frying.

Trend (noun)

A tendency in behavior.

Deep-fried (verb, adjective)

A way of frying food where you use a large amount of oil, so that it forms a deep frying area in the pan.

Husky (adjective)

Strong, substantial

Stock meal (noun)

A very common, basic meal

Trawl (noun)

A method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.

Safeguarded, to safeguard (verb)

Protect, defend

Rationing (verb, noun)

Control the amount that is allowed per person, usually by the government or an authority

Wrapper (noun)

A piece of paper, plastic, or foil covering and protecting something sold, usually food.

Greaseproof (adjective)

Impermeable to oil or grease, normally used in food packaging.

Ceased, to cease (verb)

To stop doing something, to end.

Queuing (verb, adjective)

Forming a queue, or a line.

Counter (noun)

A large surface where you work, or used as a divided between the service area and the customers in a restaurant or café.

Fryer (noun)

A large, deep container for frying food.

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